The Sound of a Sacred Croak Exodus 7:25-8:15

The sound of the peepers (frogs) in the creeks and ponds in the spring are music to my ears!  A few frogs usually find a home near our pool, and I enjoy listening to them on warm nights.  There’s a story about a priest who kept hearing the croaking of frogs while he was praying.  He yelled out to them to be quiet, and for a moment, they stopped.  When he got back to praying, he heard an inner voice that made challenged him: “What if God got more pleasure from the croaking of the frogs than from the chanting of your psalms?”  He thought a minute and began to listen as the insects and frogs resumed their rhythms.  When he listened again, he had a different perspective and prayed with a deeper appreciation of the sounds around him.  So, was the croaking hollow, or was it holy?  Were their calls frivolous, or were they fervent cries to God?  I’ll come back to that thought in a bit.

In ancient Egypt, the frog was pretty important.  In the Old to Middle kingdom, there was a religious belief that went all the way back to creation, that involved gods and goddesses older than the ones like Isis or Osiris or Anubis.  Egyptians believed the world was brought into existence from the “waters of chaos,” a state of existence that apparently has always and always will exist.  There were eight primordial deities that were called the Ogdoad, four males and four females that balanced each other with the elements of the universe.  There was Nu and Naunet that represented water, Heh and Hauhet: heaven and earth; Kek and Kauket-day and night; and Amun and Amaunet: names that meant ‘hidden one.’ The four males were frog gods and had amphibious heads, and the four females were snake goddesses with reptile heads. 

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A depiction of the Ogdoad from a Roman era relief at the Hathor temple in Dendera in which some have frog heads and others have serpent heads. GNU Free Documentation License

Khnum is another god we should know about for this story. Khnum is said to form human beings from the mud of the Nile on his potter’s wheel.  An expression in Egyptian says that when you’re on the potter’s wheel, you are in utero—in the womb.  Khnum not only forms human beings from the mud, he also brings in birthing equipment, including a birthing stool for a woman to give birth on.[1] One stela from Egypt has a reading that translated says, “I sat on bricks, like a woman in labor.”[2]

Why is this important?  If we go back to Exodus 2, and recall the story of Shiphrah and Puah, and the babies who were born to the Israelites, the Pharaoh says to them:  “When you are helping the Hebrew women to give birth and see them upon the birthstool, if it is a son, then you shall put him to death; but if it is a daughter, then she shall live.”  Exodus 1:16. The word for birthstool is bricks, connecting somehow the role of the potter, and the role of the mother, midwife, or doctor.[3] This brings a great perspective to God’s words in Jeremiah: “Behold, like the clay in the potter’s hand, so are you in My hand, O house of Israel.”[4]  In one ancient papyrus, Khnum brings in the birthing stool, and other deities are present for the birth of a child, including Heket.[5] 

The Frog headed goddess-Hekt (Heqt) was the consort of the god Khnum, who was said to have fashioned man out of clay.[6] After fashioning a person, Heket would offer the breath of life to the nose of the clay figure, symbolized by the ankh,[7] or key of life. Heqet was considered the divine patron of childbearing[8] and midwives.[9]  She is pictured as assisting women in labor.[10]

Khnum and Heket at the Dendera Temple Complex

There are many pictures and representations of Heket, and frog amulets that were used for protection using the picture of a frog.  In the Metropolitan Museum of art, there is a magic rod with four segments[11] used to ward off harmful spirits during the birth of a child.  The description listed on the site says that it may be related to the “birthing bricks” that were arranged for the mother and child during delivery.  The rod has protective motifs of feline predators, crocodiles, toads, a turtle, and baboons with flaming torches.

Egyptian, Middle Kingdom, 12th Dynasty, ca. 1878–1640 B.C.
Glazed steatite
Metropolitan Museum of Art

Khnum forms humans from the mud of the Nile and brings in birthing stools, and Heket is a patron of childbearing and midwives and fertility in general.  She also became known as being a part of the resurrection of the dead.  In pyramid texts, she assists the pharaoh as he makes his way to the eternal sky.[12]  Sometimes, where a divine pair is worshipped in Egypt, like Khnum and Heket, the Pharaoh can form the third member, in order to create a divine theological triad.[13]  It’s not that strange to see those kinds of connections, especially as we consider the entire Exodus story, which is Pharaoh, who is considered a god, or god-like, and the gods of Egypt that are up against Yahweh, the God of the people of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. 

Let’s get into the story in Exodus 7.  Seven days passed after the Lord had struck the Nile.  Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh and say to him, ‘This is what the Lord says: “Let My people go, so that they may serve Me. But if you refuse to let them go, behold, I am going to strike your entire territory with frogs.  Exodus 7:25-8:2

With the flooding of the Nile in September and October, frogs were known to invade the land.[14]  When the water receded, the frogs would claim the water again.  The Hebrew word for frogs is ‘tzefardea’ (it’s fun to say!). It’s derived from the Hebrew word for ‘peep’, so it’s an onomatopoeic name, where the word sounds like the peeping of newly hatched frogs.[15] 

Here’s a picture of a Green Toad, or Bufo Viridus.  These Green toads are found in Egypt, and they vary in color and pattern.  They are believed to be a primitive form of something that was also around in a damper period in Egypt.[16]  They sound like this:  (yes, I looked that up, too) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bufo-viridis-mating-call.ogg

When I was a kid, I learned that the sound a frog makes is ‘ribbet, ribbet’.  But some frogs can chirp, croak, snore, or whistle! “Heqet” the name of the frog goddess, also happens to also be considered a phonetic sound that frogs make.  He-kit.  He-kit.  It’s only been one week after the Nile has been turned to blood. In that instance, the fish all died.   Did that in turn drive the frogs from the river? Are the people able to even drink from the Nile, yet, or are they still digging wells and making do?  The text doesn’t say.  But one week isn’t long enough to recover, and now they’re going to be overrun with frogs.  Kind of like the nice frogs in my back yard, right?  NOT. 

God says through Moses: The Nile will swarm with frogs, which will come up and go into your house, and into your bedroom and on your bed, and into the houses of your servants, and on your people, and into your ovens and kneading bowls.  So the frogs will come up on you, your people, and on all your servants. Then the Lord said to Moses, “Say to Aaron, ‘Extend your hand with your staff over the rivers, over the streams, and over the pools, and make frogs come up on the land of Egypt.’” So Aaron extended his hand over the waters of Egypt, and the frogs came up and covered the land of Egypt.  Exodus 8:3-6

While the springtime frogs that we hear may be wonderful, imagine hearing them all the time.  The frogs didn’t just come out of the Nile and stay nearby the water.  It says that they covered the land.  Frogs can go anywhere, which means that Pharaoh is not given a pass.  Water turning to blood might not have affected Pharaoh too much, but these frogs are even in his bedroom!  There’s no escaping: even for the most powerful man in Egypt.   Pharaoh, the members of his cabinet, and ALL the Egyptians[17] will feel the extent of this ‘sign’ from God.  The Psalmist paints a picture of this when he writes: Their land swarmed with frogs Even in the chambers of their kings.  Psalm 105:30

Egyptians don’t wear shoes indoors, so imagine stepping on a frog, or multiple frogs! They don’t have elevated beds: they sleep on mats on the floor.  Frogs have found their way into kneading troughs, baking ovens, and any place where you could possibly imagine.  The language that is used here is important, too.  The Lord said to Pharaoh, The Nile will swarm with frogs. (Exodus 8:3).  Some of your versions may use the word ‘teem’, or be ‘filled.’  In the Genesis account of creation, God said, “Let the waters teem with swarms of living creatures.” Genesis 1:20. It’s the same word that God used when talking to Noah after the Flood, “be fruitful and multiply; ‘teem’ or ‘swarm’ the earth abundantly and multiply in it.” Genesis 9:7  The children of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob had fulfilled that command by the time we get to Exodus 1:7, and it says they were fruitful and ‘swarmed’ greatly, (same word) and multiplied; so that the land was filled with them.  If you remember, Pharaoh wasn’t too happy about it. 

He forced the Israelites into service for Egypt, but his attempts to squelch the population explosion backfired.  Pharaoh began dehumanizing them in order to exterminate them.  He considered the slaves nothing more than swarming creatures that were bothersome and loathsome, and he tried to get rid of them.

But frogs are symbols of fertility and life and they were so sacred that the Egyptians were not supposed to kill them.[18]  The frogs swarming all over may be some reckoning for the decree from Pharaoh that the midwives were supposed kill the newborn male babies of the Israelites.[19]  And it’s definitely an attack on Heket,[20] the goddess of fertility who is pictured as a frog. Pharaoh tries to squelch the fertility of the people, and now the fertility goddess is being squelched, because Yahweh is the one who gives children, and he is the one true God.  Not every frog is associated with Heket.  But the idea of creation and fertility and childbearing certainly is.  And at the very least, there is chaos and disorder in the land, and Pharaoh is not in control.[21]

However, the soothsayer priests did the same with their secret arts, making frogs come up on the land of Egypt.  Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron and said, “Plead with the Lord to remove the frogs from me and from my people; and I will let the people go, so that they may sacrifice to the Lord.” And Moses said to Pharaoh, “The honor is yours to tell me: when shall I plead for you and your servants and your people, that the frogs be destroyed from you and your houses, that they be left only in the Nile?” Then he said, “Tomorrow.”  Exodus 8:7-10

Pharaoh’s magicians duplicate the frogs.  Really?  How are you going to tell?  And WHY would you want to—unless you’re trying to prove a point. Isn’t it interesting that Pharaoh doesn’t plead with his OWN magicians to remove the frogs, but he asks Moses and Aaron to plead to Yahweh?[22]  It might be a slight acknowledgment of where the source of power is coming from, or it’s a ploy, but Moses gives Pharaoh control in setting the time.  So Pharaoh says, ‘tomorrow.’  Again…really?  But it gives time for Moses to pray, and for Pharaoh to understand that this is God’s hand at work.

So he [Moses] said, “May it be according to your word, so that you may know that there is no one like the Lord our God. The frogs will depart from you and your houses, and from your servants and your people; they will be left only in the Nile.”  Then Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh, and Moses cried out to the Lord concerning the frogs which He had inflicted upon Pharaoh. The Lord did according to the word of Moses, and the frogs died out of the houses, the courtyards, and the fields. So they piled them in heaps, and the land stank.  Exodus 8:10-14

While God does answer the request of Pharaoh, to a point, he does it in a not-so-pleasant manner.  The frogs don’t just disappear or hop off into the distance, nor do they go back to the Nile, like Pharaoh hoped for, and Moses prayed for.  No, they just die.  I guess dead frogs are easier to remove than trying to catch frogs that are hopping everywhere, right?[23]  But the piles of rotting carcasses create a terrible smell all over Egypt.[24] Just like the blood that appears in the Nile river, the sign of the frogs, and then the piles of dead frogs laying all around, shows the people something about this God versus the gods of Egypt. Heket is no longer a goddess of life and fertility. Yahweh is the one who gives and takes away life. 

But when Pharaoh saw that there was relief, he hardened his heart and did not listen to them, just as the Lord had said. Exodus 8:15 Ah, Pharaoh’s heart.  In the Hebrew it reads: Pharaoh’s heart was ‘made heavy’.  This is another dangerous commentary on his chances at making it to the afterlife.  And it’s another reminder to us to watch our hearts! 

As interesting as all this information is about the Ogdoad and Heket and Khnum, and the frogs of Egypt, there’s something else that really strikes home in this text. As cruel and oppressive as Pharaoh was, he asks Moses to pray to Yahweh on his behalf.[25]  That’s a good step in the right direction. The problem is in how he prayed.  Pharaoh’s prayer was frivolous.  Pharaoh may have asked Moses to pray for him, but it was for very selfish reasons. It is not wrong to pray, “Take away the frogs.”  I think that in the same situation, we would have prayed the same thing.  But that’s ALL that Pharaoh asked for.  He didn’t say, “Yahweh, forgive me,” nor did he ask for any help with his hard heart.  His prayer was very selfish, and situation focused.[26] 

If we were honest, we might admit that our prayers fall into this category more than we’d want them to. “God, take away the frogs! Take away my distress, take away this problem, take away my troubles, take away my pain.”  It’s not wrong to pray that way, but it isn’t very deep. I wonder, if we were praying, ‘God, take away my hard heart, take away my sin, and my selfish desires, until I reflect more of you,’ how much more would that really change and reorient us to being the kind of people that truly love God for who he is, and not just what he can do for us when it’s convenient.  It’s way too easy, when we get into a bind, to croak out our prayers to God to deliver us, and then when he does what we ask for, we think, ‘nah, I’m good.  Now I don’t really need to change, or to do what I said I would.  Things look fine.’ 

Let’s compare Pharaoh’s prayer to the prayer of Moses.  Moses is in a unique position. He deals with two courts: one on earth and one in heaven.  He goes into Pharaoh’s court, where weighty decisions are made in regard to people and nations; and then he goes into the heavenly court of Yahweh, where even more far-reaching issues are decided, and he gets orders and can bring his requests to God.[27]

Pharaoh, and all of Egypt, is dealing with frogs that are ‘swarming’ into every nook and cranny of his kingdom.  You might think that Moses could be smirking about this behind Pharaoh’s back.  I think I would.  When Pharaoh asks Moses to pray for him he could have said no, or he could have faked a yes and then brought it before God saying, ‘God, you really got him.  Wow!’  But Moses’ prayer was fervent

The text tells us that Moses cries out to God. Maybe Moses cries out in order to be heard over the sound of the frogs,[28] but this kind of crying out is done when someone is in great need.  Esau cries out to his father to bless him too, after he is cheated out of his birthright.[29]  Moses cries out to God like this when the people are up against the Sea of Reeds with nowhere left to go.[30]  He cries out to the Lord when the waters are bitter in the desert and the people are murmuring.[31]  Moses cries out to God on behalf of his sister Miriam when she is afflicted with leprosy.[32]  The primitive root of this word means to shriek, and in this story, perhaps a croak is appropriate, too.  Moses cries out to God on behalf of this oppressor.[33]  He cries out before God like someone speaking in court on behalf of a friend!!  This hits me hard. 

And God looked favorably on Moses’ prayer. His cries were heard, because Moses was faithful, he was fervent.  The Psalmist writes: The righteous cry, and the LORD hears and delivers them out of all their troubles. Psalm 24:17  Last week we were reminded that the blood of Jesus can cover our sin. Because of Jesus, we are people who have been granted the privilege of having an audience with God in prayer.[34]  It’s not something to be taken lightly.  The prayer of a righteous person is powerful and effective, says James.[35]

The frogs in our story were everywhere.  And many times, there are people, problems and pain that is everywhere in our lives: it’s in our neighborhoods, in our homes, in our beds, and in our kitchens. And we need to pray!  Maybe those things are in our lives, so that we will be driven to prayer. We can be faithful in offering up our cries to God. 

Maybe you are in a situation that makes you feel powerless.  It may be a health situation or a family crisis.  Maybe you are overwhelmed with things that are coming at you from all directions.  But you have the ability to pray. You can come before God, in his throne room, and you can offer up your sighs and pleas and cries, and he will hear you:  Like the man that cried out for Jesus to look at his son.[36] Like Bartimaeus, who cried out, ‘Son of David, have mercy on me!’[37] And even like Jesus, who cried out on the cross.[38]

This story suggests an even deeper step in prayer that we can take.  Unlike Pharaoh, we don’t want to be frivolous or foolish in our prayers.  This example of Moses in our story is compelling and humbling. Moses prayed for the person who was in power over Egypt, even though he didn’t agree with his politics. Moses prayed for Pharaoh, even though Pharaoh was not willing to obey God’s commands. Moses, prayed, even though he could have rejoiced in Pharaoh’s misfortunes. Moses prayed FERVENTLY…for his enemy. 

John Goldingay writes: ‘Praying for our oppressors is an exercise in the authority that we have from God’.[39]  This is such a huge perspective shift, isn’t it?  We can be like Pharaoh or like Moses: OUR PRAYERS CAN BE FRIVOLOUS, OR THEY CAN BE FERVENT. We can pray for pain to be removed and then move on if God answers it, or we can pray for forgiveness and soft hearts.  We can pray for God to bring payback on our enemies, or we can pray fervently for others who have hurt us.  We can be frivolous, or we can be fervent.

The people of Nineveh prayed fervently to God[40] and turned from their ways.  They cried out—and God heard them.  We can pray like that.  When Peter was in prison, the church prayed fervently to God for his release and safe return[41] and God heard them.  We should pray like that. Jesus prayed so fervently in the garden that drops of blood fell from his face.  He prayed for God to find another way, but in the same breath submitted to his Father’s will.[42]  We must pray like that.

Jesus told his disciples: You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.’ “But I say to you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, so that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven; for He causes His sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous.  Matthew 5:43-45

Mitsuo Fuchida was a pilot in the squadron that bombed Pearl Harbor.[43] He was decorated by the Japanese, and hated by the Americans, including Jacob DeShazer, who later dropped bombs on Japan as payback, but was captured and imprisoned for almost two years.  He experienced hunger, cold, and watched his fellow prisoners die. He hated his captors.  But someone gave him a Bible, and these verses from Matthew seeped into his heart.  He began greeting the guards and praying for them.  After he was finally freed, he studied for the ministry and went back to Japan as a missionary.  Thousands of Japanese wanted to hear from him.  One day he was passing out pamphlets about his experience, and Mitsuo Fuchida walked by and was handed one.  He picked up a Bible to figure out what Jacob had discovered, and eventually asked Jesus to forgive his sins, and he also became an evangelist!  That’s the power of a fervent prayer. 

Praying for our enemies doesn’t guarantee that they will change, but WE most certainly will.  Even if our prayer comes out like a croak, we can pray fervently: even for our enemies.  We can pray for those in authority over us, even if we don’t agree with them. 

Because it honors God.  Coincidentally, there’s a simple F.R.O.G. prayer out there…Fully Rely On God.  We can pledge ourselves to come before God; not in a way that is frivolous, but to be fervent, and faithful, so that our prayers are a sweet, sweet sound in God’s ears. 

PRAYER: Creator God, by your Word you created the world and breathed into it the breath of life by your Holy Spirit.  The earth is filled with the sounds of your creatures who all sing their praises to you.  Our mouths are sometimes filled with anger, irritation, and things spoken in haste.  Touch our lips so that we will speak words that bring kindness, and healing.  Give us the strength to pray for our enemies, and to forgive them as you have so graciously forgiven us.   Lord, hear our prayer: I love you, Lord, and I lift my voice to worship You, O my soul, rejoice. Take joy, my king, in what You hear, May it be a sweet, sweet sound in your ear.


Going Deeper Questions

-Did you ever catch frogs as a kid?  What do you like about frogs?  What do you dislike?

Read Exodus 7:25  What do you think the mood of the people is right about now? Read Exodus 8:1  Did God change His request at all?  (compare to Exodus 3:18)

In the creation story, the waters ‘teemed’ with God’s creatures; but here, the Nile will “teem” with frogs.  The writer connects the idea of creation in Genesis, with a move back to chaos, an anti-creation picture pointed at the Egyptians. What impact would the plague of frogs have on the land? How would you feel about running into frogs everywhere in your house, your yard, and your city? Why do you think God chose this plague?

The Frog headed goddess-Heket was the consort of the god Khnum, who was said to have fashioned man out of clay.  Heket is an ancient symbol of fertility, and tied to the Nile.  She was considered the divine patron of childbearing and midwives.  

How could the Egyptian magicians do the same thing? If they were so powerful, why did they not reverse the plague?

Read Exodus 8:8-11

According to verse 7 how was this third plague similar to the first two? According to verse 9 how was this third plague different from the first two? According to verse 10, what was the purpose for that difference? What is different about Pharaoh’s reaction this time from the previous time?

Why did Moses give Pharaoh the chance to choose when this miracle would take place? What would this teach the Egyptians and Pharaoh about God? Why do you think God destroyed the frogs when He knew Pharaoh still would not change his mind?

Read Exodus 8:12

Moses cried out to God on behalf of Pharaoh. He cries out to God like this when the people are up against the Sea of Reeds with nowhere left to go.[44]  He cries out to the Lord when the waters are bitter in the desert and the people are murmuring.[45]  Moses cries out to God on behalf of his sister Miriam when she is afflicted with leprosy.[46]

While Pharaoh’s prayer was frivolous, Moses’ prayer was fervent.

How hard is it to pray for an enemy or someone who hurt you?

Picture a dinner table with your enemies sitting near you.  How does that feel?  The Psalmist writes “you prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies.”  Judas was at the Last Supper, and Jesus washed his feet, and served him bread, even though he knew what was about to happen.  In what ways can you pray for your enemies this week?  Even if it’s hard, ask God to help, and remember Moses’ prayer.(see also Matthew 5:43-45)

You can read the full story of Mitsuo Fuchida here: https://christianhistoryinstitute.org/magazine/article/mitsuo-fuchida-christian-evangelist

Read Exodus 8:13-15

What is different about what happened with the frogs (vs 14), versus what Moses said? (vs11) What was Pharaoh’s reaction after the frogs were gone? What does this teach us about human nature? 

Pharaoh has come a long way from Exodus 5:2, when he doesn’t even know who Yahweh is.  By now he knows his name, and has seen some of his power, and he actually asks Moses to plead with Yahweh on his behalf.  But Pharaoh isn’t really liking what he is seeing and hearing, and he’s definitely not ready to let the people go.   

Are you ever tempted to just go through the motions with your prayers? Has God ever said “no” to one of your prayers or desires?  How does that make you feel about God?  Has God ever answered your prayers to do something, but you didn’t follow through with your promise? 

Did you ever have a time where God called you to repent?  How did you respond? Can you sympathize at all with Pharaoh and his hardness of heart?

The people of Nineveh prayed fervently to God[47] and turned from their ways.  They cried out and God heard them.  We can pray like that.  When Peter was in prison, the church prayed fervently to God for his release and safe return[48]and God heard them.  We should pray like that. Jesus prayed so fervently in the garden that drops of blood fell from his face. He prayed for God to find another way, but in the same breath submitted to his Father’s will.[49]  We must pray like that.

The righteous cry, and the LORD hears and delivers them out of all their troubles. Psalm 24:17  The prayer of a righteous person is powerful and effective.  James 5:16


[1] Kevin McGeough, Birth Bricks, Potter’s Wheels, and Exodus 1,16, Biblica, 2006, Vol.87, No.3, 305-318,

310.

[2] McGeough, 314. 

[3] Mc Geough, 317. 

[4] Jeremiah 18:6

[5] McGeough, 311. 

[6] Nahum M. Sarna, Exodus, Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 1991, 40. 

[7] Barbara Watterson, Gods of Ancient Egypt, Godalming, Surrey: Bramley Books Limited, 1996, 191.

[8] Victor H. Matthews, Don C. Benjamin, Old Testament Parallels, New York: Paulist Press, 2006, 60.

[9] John H. Walton, Craig S. Keener, eds, Cultural Backgrounds Study Bible, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2016, 121.

[10] Nahum M. Sarna, Exploring Exodus: The Origins of Biblical Israel, New York: Schocken Books, 1986, 79.

[11] https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/544110#:~:text=1878%E2%80%931640%20B.C.,Middle%20Kingdom&text=Composed%20of%20four%20joining%20segments,to%20ward%20off%20harmful%20spirits.

[12] https://ancientegyptonline.co.uk/heqet/

[13] H. te Velde, Some Remarks on the Structure of Egyptian Divine Triads, The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology , Aug., 1971, Vol. 57 (Aug., 1971), 80- 86, 83.

[14] Mark S. Smith, Exodus, Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 2011, 41.

[15] John I Durham, Word Biblical Commentary: Exodus, Waco: Word Books, 1987, 101. 

[16] http://www.egyptheritage.com/BiodiversitySite/WildLife/Reptiles_02.html#pic

[17] John I Durham, Word Biblical Commentary: Exodus, Waco: Word Books, 1987, 104. 

[18] Tony Merida, Exodus, Nashville: B&H Publishing Group, 2014, 58.

[19] Nahum M. Sarna, Exodus, Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 1991, 40. 

[20] Peter Enns, Exodus: The NIV Application Commentary, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2000, 205.

[21] John H. Walton, Craig S. Keener, eds, Cultural Backgrounds Study Bible, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2016, 121.

[22] Carol Meyers, Exodus, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005, 82.

[23] James K. Bruckner, Exodus, Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2008, 81. 

[24] Durham, 105. 

[25] John Goldingay, Exodus & Leviticus for everyone, Louisville: John Knox Press, 2010, 39. 

[26] https://archive.spurgeon.org/s_and_t/frogs.php

[27] Goldingay, Exodus & Leviticus, 39. 

[28] Lerner, Berel Dov, Crying out about frogs, Vetus testamentum, 60 no4 2010, 662-663.

[29]Genesis 27:34

[30] Exodus 14:15

[31] Exodus 15:25

[32] Numbers 12:13

[33] Goldingay, Exodus & Leviticus, 39. 

[34] Hebrews 10:19

[35] James 5:16

[36] Luke 9:38

[37] Luke 18:38

[38] Mark 15:34

[39] Goldingay, 40. 

[40] Jonah 3:8

[41] Acts 12:5

[42] Luke 22:44

[43] https://christianhistoryinstitute.org/magazine/article/mitsuo-fuchida-christian-evangelist

[44] Exodus 14:15

[45] Exodus 15:25

[46] Numbers 12:13

[47] Jonah 3:8

[48] Acts 12:5

[49] Luke 22:44

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